List of scientific publications on surface electromyography according to the method of the school of Milan

The measurement protocol has been validated in international scientific literature for almost 30 years of publications. The development of this standardized electromyography method first focused on the repeatability and on the determination of the reference values, and then turned to the application of the protocol to different categories of Patients. The consensus from the world's leading scientific journals has manifested itself through various publications in impacted journals, providing the analysis system with the highest degree of international recognition.


  1. "Ferrario VF, Sforza C, D'Addona A, Miani A Jr. Reproducibility of electromyographic measures: a statistical analysis. J Oral Rehabil. 1991"
  2. "Ferrario VF, Sforza C, Miani A Jr, D'Addona A, Barbini E. Electromyographic activity of human masticatory muscles in normal young people. Statistical evaluation of reference values for clinical applications. J Oral Rehabil. 1993"
  3. "Ferrario VF, Sforza C. Coordinated electromyographic activity of the human masseter and temporalis anterior muscles during mastication. Eur J Oral Sci. 1996"
  4. "Ferrario VF, Sforza C, Serrao G, Colombo A, Schmitz JH. The effects of a single intercuspal interference on electromyographic characteristics of human masticatory muscles during maximal voluntary teeth clenching. Cranio. 1999"
  5. "Ferrario VF, Sforza C, Serrao G. The influence of crossbite on the coordinated electromyographic activity of human masticatory muscles during mastication. J Oral Rehabil. 1999"


  1. "Ferrario VF, Sforza C, Colombo A, Ciusa V. An electromyographic investigation of masticatory muscles symmetry in normo-occlusion subjects. J Oral Rehabil. 2000"
  2. "Ferrario VF, Sforza C, Serrao G, Fragnito N, Grassi G. The influence of different jaw positions on the endurance and electromyographic pattern of the biceps brachii muscle in young adults with different occlusal characteristics. J Oral Rehabil. 2001"
  3. "Ferrario VF, Serrao G, Dellavia C, Caruso E, Sforza C. Relationship between the number of occlusal contacts and masticatory muscle activity in healthy young adults. Cranio. 2002"
  4. "Ferrario VF, Marciandi PV, Tartaglia GM, Dellavia C, Sforza C. Neuromuscular evaluation of post-orthodontic stability: an experimental protocol. Int J Adult Orthodon Orthognath Surg. 2002"
  5. "Ferrario VF, Sforza C, Tartaglia GM, Dellavia C. Immediate effect of a stabilization splint on masticatory muscle activity in temporomandibular disorder patients. J Oral Rehabil. 2002"
  6. "Ferrario VF, Sforza C, Dellavia C, Tartaglia GM. Evidence of an influence of asymmetrical occlusal interferences on the activity of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. J Oral Rehabil. 2003"
  7. "Serrao G, Sforza C, Dellavia C, Antinori M, Ferrario VF. Relation between vertical facial morphology and jaw muscle activity in healthy young men. Prog Orthod. 2003"
  8. "Ferrario VF, Tartaglia GM, Maglione M, Simion M, Sforza C. Neuromuscular coordination of masticatory muscles in subjects with two types of implant-supported prostheses. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2004"
  9. "Ferrario VF, Sforza C, Zanotti G, Tartaglia GM. Maximal bite forces in healthy young adults as predicted by surface electromyography. J Dent. 2004"
  10. "Ferrario VF, Sforza C, Serrao G, Dellavia C, Tartaglia GM. Single tooth bite forces in healthy young adults. J Oral Rehabil. 2004”


  1. "Sforza C, Tartaglia GM, Solimene U, Morgun V, Kaspranskiy RR, Ferrario VF. Occlusion, sternocleidomastoid muscle activity, and body sway: a pilot study in male astronauts. Cranio. 2006"
  2. "Ferrario VF, Dellavia C, Turci M, Sforza C. Fatigue in the sternocleidomastoid muscle and hip dysplasia: a surface electromyographic assessment in adult women. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2006"
  3. "Ferrario VF, Tartaglia GM, Galletta A, Grassi GP, Sforza C. The influence of occlusion on jaw and neck muscle activity: a surface EMG study in healthy young adults. J Oral Rehabil. 2006"
  4. "Dellavia C, Romeo E, Ghisolfi M, Chiapasco M, Sforza C, Ferrario VF. Electromyographic evaluation of implant-supported prostheses in hemimandibulectomy-reconstructed patients. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2007"
  5. "Sforza C, Zanotti G, Mantovani E, Ferrario VF. Fatigue in the masseter and temporalis muscles at constant load. Cranio. 2007"
  6. "Ferrario VF, Tartaglia GM, Luraghi FE, Sforza C. The use of surface electromyography as a tool in differentiating temporomandibular disorders from neck disorders. Man Ther. 2007"
  7. "Tartaglia GM, Testori T, Pallavera A, Marelli B, Sforza C. Electromyographic analysis of masticatory and neck muscles in subjects with natural dentition, teeth-supported and implant-supported prostheses. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2008"
  8. "Ries L.G., Alves M.C., Bérzin F. Asymmetric activation of temporalis, masseter, and sternocleidomastoid muscles in temporomandibular disorder patients. Cranio. 2008"
  9. "Dong Y, Wang XM, Wang MQ, Widmalm SE. Asymmetric muscle function in patients with developmental mandibular asymmetry. J Oral Rehabil. 2008"
  10. "Tartaglia GM, Barozzi S, Marin F, Cesarani A, Ferrario VF. Electromyographic activity of sternocleidomastoid and masticatory muscles in patients with vestibular lesions. J Appl Oral Sci. 2008"
  11. "Sforza C, Peretta R, Grandi G, Ferronato G, Ferrario VF. Soft tissue facial planes and masticatory muscle function in skeletal Class III patients before and after orthognathic surgery treatment. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2008"
  12. "Tartaglia GM, Moreira Rodrigues da Silva MA, Bottini S, Sforza C, Ferrario VF. Masticatory muscle activity during maximum voluntary clench in different research diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders (RDC/TMD) groups. Man Ther. 2008"
  13. "Peretta R, Melison M, Meneghello R, Comelli D, Guarda L, Galzignato PF, Concheri G, Ferronato G. Unilateral masseter muscle hypertrophy: morphofunctional analysis of the relapse after treatment with botulinum toxin. Cranio. 2009"
  14. "Tartaglia GM, Grandi G, Mian F, Sforza C, Ferrario VF. Non-invasive 3D facial analysis and surface electromyography during functional pre-orthodontic therapy: a preliminary report. J Appl Oral Sci. 2009"
  15. "Di Palma E, Gasparini G, Pelo S, Tartaglia GM, Chimenti C. Activities of masticatory muscles in patients after orthognathic surgery. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2009"
  16. "Sforza C, Tartaglia GM, Lovecchio N, Ugolini A, Monteverdi R, Giannì AB, Ferrario VF. Mandibular movements at maximum mouth opening and EMG activity of masticatory and neck muscles in patients rehabilitated after a mandibular condyle fracture. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2009"
  17. "Ferrario VF, Sforza C, Tartaglia GM. Commentary to Suvinen and Kemppainen (JOR 2007;34:631-44). J Oral Rehabil. 2009"
  18. "De Felício CM, Sidequersky FV, Tartaglia GM, Sforza C. Electromyographic standardized indices in healthy Brazilian young adults and data reproducibility. J Oral Rehabil. 2009"


  1. "Botelho AL, Silva BC, Gentil FH, Sforza C, da Silva MA. Immediate effect of the resilient splint evaluated using surface electromyography in patients with TMD. Cranio. 2010"
  2. "Di Palma E, Gasparini G, Pelo S, Tartaglia GM, Sforza C. Activities of masticatory muscles in patients before orthognathic surgery. J Craniofac Surg. 2010"
  3. "Sforza C, Montagna S, Rosati R, DE Menezes M. Immediate effect of an elastomeric oral appliance on the neuromuscular coordination of masticatory muscles: a pilot study in healthy subjects. J Oral Rehabil. 2010"
  4. "Botelho AL, Gentil FH, Sforza C, da Silva MA. Standardization of the electromyographic signal through the maximum isometric voluntary contraction. Cranio. 2011"
  5. "Sforza C, Rosati R, De Menezes M, Musto F, Toma M. EMG analysis of trapezius and masticatory muscles: experimental protocol and data reproducibility. J Oral Rehabil. 2011"
  6. "Tartaglia GM, Lodetti G, Paiva G, De Felicio CM, Sforza C. Surface electromyographic assessment of patients with long lasting temporomandibular joint disorder pain. J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 2011"
  7. "Castroflorio T, Falla D, Tartaglia GM, Sforza C, Deregibus A. Myoelectric manifestations of jaw elevator muscle fatigue and recovery in healthy and TMD subjects. J Oral Rehabil. 2012"
  8. "De Felício CM, Ferreira CL, Medeiros AP, Rodrigues Da Silva MA, Tartaglia GM, Sforza C. Electromyographic indices, orofacial myofunctional status and temporomandibular disorders severity: A correlation study. J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 2012"
  9. "Dellavia C, Francetti L, Rosati R, Corbella S, Ferrario VF, Sforza C. Electromyographic assessment of jaw muscles in patients with All-on-Four fixed implant-supported prostheses. J Oral Rehabil. 2012"
  10. "Lodetti G, Mapelli A, Musto F, Rosati R, Sforza C. EMG spectral characteristics of masticatory muscles and upper trapezius during maximum voluntary teeth clenching. J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 2012"
  11. "Vieira e Silva CA, da Silva MA, Melchior Mde O, de Felício CM, Sforza C, Tartaglia GM. Treatment for TMD with occlusal splint and electromyographic control: application of the FARC protocol in a Brazilian population. Cranio. 2012"
  12. "De Felício CM, Mapelli A, Sidequersky FV, Tartaglia GM, Sforza C. Mandibular kinematics and masticatory muscles EMG in patients with short lasting TMD of mild-moderate severity. J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 2013"
  13. "Tartaglia GM, de Felicio CM, Sforza C. Commentary to Manfredini et al. J Oral Rehabil. 2012;39:463-71. J Oral Rehabil. 2013"
  14. "Dellavia C, Rosati R, Del Fabbro M, Pellegrini G. Functional jaw muscle assessment in patients with a full fixed prosthesis on a limited number of implants: a review of the literature. Eur J Oral Implantol. 2014"
  15. "Ferreira CL, Machado BC, Borges CG, Rodrigues Da Silva MA, Sforza C, De Felício CM. Impaired orofacial motor functions on chronic temporomandibular disorders. J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 2014"
  16. "Lodetti G, Marano G, Fontana P, Tartaglia GM, Maria de Felício C, Biganzoli E, Sforza C. Surface electromyography and magnetic resonance imaging of the masticatory muscles in patients with arthrogenous temporomandibular disorders. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2014"


  1. "Augusti D, Augusti G, Re D, Dellavia C, Giannì AB. Effect of different dental articulating papers on SEMG activity during maximum clenching. J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 2015"
  2. "Mapelli A, Tartaglia GM, Connelly ST, Ferrario VF, De Felicio CM, Sforza C. Normalizing surface electromyographic measures of the masticatory muscles: Comparison of two different methods for clinical purpose. J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 2016"
  3. "Mapelli A, Zanandréa Machado BC, Giglio LD, Sforza C, De Felício CM. Reorganization of muscle activity in patients with chronic temporomandibular disorders. Arch Oral Biol. 2016"
  4. "Cullati F, Mapelli A, Beltramini G, Codari M, Pimenta Ferreira CL, Baj A, Giannì AB, Sforza C. Surface electromyography before and after orthognathic surgery and condylectomy in active laterognathia: a case report. Eur J Paediatr Dent. 2017"
  5. "Di Palma E, Tepedino M, Chimenti C, Tartaglia GM, Sforza C. Effects of the functional orthopaedic therapy on masticatory muscles activity. J Clin Exp Dent. 2017"
  6. "Di Palma E, Tepedino M, Chimenti C, Tartaglia GM, Sforza C. Longitudinal effects of rapid maxillary expansion on masticatory muscles activity. J Clin Exp Dent. 2017"
  7. "Fuentes AD, Sforza C, Miralles R, Ferreira CL, Mapelli A, Lodetti G, Martin C. Assessment of electromyographic activity in patients with temporomandibular disorders and natural mediotrusive occlusal contact during chewing and tooth grinding. Cranio. 2017"
  8. "Musto F, Rosati R, Sforza C, Toma M, Dellavia C. Standardised surface electromyography allows effective submental muscles assessment. J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 2017"
  9. "Dellavia C, Rosati R, Musto F, Pellegrini G, Begnoni G, Ferrario VF. Preliminary approach for the surface electromyographical evaluation of the oral phase of swallowing. J Oral Rehabil. 2018"